Science, Technology, and Entrepreneurship






Collaborative Innovation and Knowledge Creation: Theory and Testing with a Natural Experiment in Japan

Maki, Kanetaka M. and Krishnan, Vish, Collaborative Innovation and Knowledge Creation: Theory and Testing with a Natural Experiment in Japan (November 14, 2013). University of California, San Diego, Rady School of Management Working Paper. 



The growing complexity of industrial research and development has created the need for collaboration between industry researchers and university faculty. Drivers of such collaborative joint research between universities and firms, resulting in co-authored publications, have received relatively little research attention. In this paper, we develop and test a simple theoretical model of university-industry co-authored publications and the impact of an intermediary - the university’s Technology Transfer Office (TTO) - on such joint research. Our analysis shows that TTO can have a negative impact on collaboration by actively pursuing intellectual property (IP) and increasing the transaction costs for the collaborating parties, but the TTO impact is shown to be felt differently by junior researchers in comparison with senior University researchers. These predictions are examined using data collected based on a natural experiment in Japan. Japanese universities were “forced” to introduce a TTO by their national government in the years 1998-2002. We consider this exogenous shock and examine the impact of joint research, using co-authorship of academic articles between researchers at universities and firms as an indicator of joint research. Using panel data, the results of our analysis weigh in on the model findings: the creation of TTO has a mixed and differential effect on joint research between university researchers and firms. Our theoretical model and empirical evidence offers one of the first models of joint research validated with a novel empirical dataset and suggests that intermediaries such as TTO may adversely impact joint publications between universities and firms, if not properly managed. Implications and next steps are discussed.


Keywords: collaborative innovation and knowledge creation, natural experiment, translation of science


Service Innovation for Improved Satisfaction: Designing Patient Call Back in Emergency Healthcare

Maki, Kanetaka M. and Krishnan, Vish and Castillo, Edward M. and Guss, David A., Service Innovation for Improved Satisfaction: Designing Patient Call Back in Emergency Healthcare (January 17, 2014).



Healthcare delivery is becoming a significant proportion of the service economy around the world. Within healthcare, the Emergency Department (ED) constitutes one of the most challenging areas of service delivery. Patient (customer) arrival is highly unpredictable, job scope is variable and uncertain, and timely service response is essential to save lives. In addition, emergency physicians and hospitals may soon be monitored and compensated with a new set of metrics including patient satisfaction measured after service delivery. In this paper, we report data and results from a study that involved a service process innovation at two academic EDs – the proposed redesign involves utilizing the addition of a new process step that uses health provider capacity when available for follow-up patient calls after discharge from the emergency department. We examine the overall impact of this process redesign on patient satisfaction as measured by the “likelihood to recommend” question on patient surveys. We also examine how follow-up caller identity (nurse vs. medical doctor) and patient characteristics influence customer/patient satisfaction. Our findings first confirm that the addition of a follow-up call back step to the service process has a significant impact on reported patient satisfaction. We focus on identifying ways to improve the efficiency of the call back step in the service design. Specifically, we find that patients over age 65 are more likely to respond positively to call back than those under 65 and the impact of call back is strongly associated for certain healthcare insurance (Medicare and MediCal). These findings can help hospitals redesign the ED service process and segment patients for call back in an effective manner. Underlying fundamental implications and future work possibilities are discussed.


Keywords: Emergency Medical Service, Process Innovation, Call Back